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In memory of:
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A Session with a CYBER 960
Michael A. Covington
Artificial Intelligence Center
The University of Georgia
This document will step you through a sample session compiling and executing
a FORTRAN program on the CYBER 960 at cray-cyber.org.
See also their command summary
and usage notes
I'll also show you how to access the easy-to-use BASIC system
on the CYBER, which is very user-friendly and resembles other BASIC systems from
Dartmouth to GW-BASIC.
The very first computer I ever programmed was a Control Data 6400, in February, 1973.
This CYBER 960 is its closest living relative.
I stopped using CYBERs for productive work around 1986.
The following notes were made on March 6th, 2004, with acute awareness that this will
be one of my last-ever encounters with a CYBER.
The CYBER file system is radically different from anything you've experienced under
UNIX, DOS, or Windows. Specifically:
The bizarre CPU architecture (designed for fast arithmetic and very little else) and
the rest of the commands are documented elsewhere.
- Your program can only read and write local (temporary) files, not
SAVE,localfile=permanentfile stores a copy of a local file
as a permanent file.
GET,localfile=permanentfile retrieves a copy of a permanent
file and makes it a local file.
ENQUIRE,F tells you what local files you have.
Normally, the local files INPUT and OUTPUT are connected to your terminal.
CATLIST tells you what permanent files you have.
- Files are like tapes; you must rewind them when you want to get back to
the beginning of the file. (REWIND,localfile.)
Putting this another way: Files are opened by your terminal session, not by the
individual program that reads them. It's perfectly possible for one program to read
part of a file, and then another program read the rest. The files does not go
back to the beginning when another program opens it.
If the contents of a file seem to have disappeared, it probably needs rewinding.
- File names are limited to 7 characters. My personal practice is to use the last
character to indicate the kind of file (F for FORTRAN source, C for COMPASS source,
blank for executable object code).
- Text files aren't ASCII; they're in 6-bit "display code." In practice this means
there aren't any lowercase letters, and you can't use ASCII codes in programming.
Actually, there is also a 12-bit ASCII file type, but if you're using it, you're
probably not a real CYBER purist.
Entering and Compiling a FORTRAN Program
Here's how I actually entered, compiled, and saved a small FORTRAN program.
WELCOME TO THE NOS SOFTWARE SYSTEM.
COPYRIGHT CONTROL DATA 1978, 1989.
94/03/06. 16.00.51. T020102
NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM. 0. NOS 2.8.1 803/803.
USER NAME: guest15
PASSWORD: your password
T020102 - APPLICATION: iaf
JSN: AAEU, NAMIAF
The / is the command prompt. What I typed is in lowercase, and most commands are echoed by the
system in uppercase.
Editing a file
/screen,vt100 (Tell the CYBER I'm using a VT-100 terminal.)
/fse,myprogf (Full-screen-edit the file MYPROGF.)
I never entirely figured out the full-screen editor, but fortunately, it's not necessary to do so.
The command area is at the upper left corner; just move the cursor there to type commands.
HELP will get you a guide to further editing commands.
QUIT will save your program to a local file and exit the editor.
Copying from the keyboard to a file
You may prefer to type directly onto a file from the keyboard
(like cat >filename in UNIX).
For instance, you may be pasting your file into your Telnet session
from an editor on your PC.
Here's how it's done:
? program foo(output)
? print *,"hello"
EOF. 1 FILE; 0 RECORDS; 3 LINES.
Note that empty lines are end-of-record marks when the CYBER is reading from the keyboard
in this way. Make sure your program does not
contain any empty lines. In FORTRAN programs, the usual alternative is to use comment lines
that contain only the letter C in column 1.
The rest of my session
After editing my file with FSE, here's what I did next:
/enquire,f (Look at a list of my local files)
LOCAL FILE INFORMATION.
FILENAME LENGTH/PRUS TYPE STATUS FS LEVEL
FSEHELP 101 PM.* BOI (used by FSE)
FSEPROC 17 LO. BOI (used by FSE)
INPUT TT. (terminal input)
INPUT* 1 IN.* EOR NAD
MYPROGF 1 LO. BOI (the file I created)
OUTPUT TT. (terminal output)
ZZZWORK 148 LO. EOF NAD (who knows?)
ZZZZTRM 4 LO. EOR NAD (who knows?)
TOTAL = 8
/copy,myprogf,output (Copy my file to the terminal so I can see it)
C A SAMPLE FORTRAN PROGRAM FOR THE CYBER
PRINT *, "HELLO, WORLD!"
EOI. 0 FILES; 1 RECORD; 16 WORDS.
/rewind,myprogf (Rewind it. IMPORTANT STEP!)
/ftn,i=myprogf,b=myprog,l=0 (Compile MYPROGF, write binary onto MYPROG, no listing)
.008 CP SECONDS COMPILATION TIME
/myprog (Load and execute MYPROG)
0.006 CP SECONDS EXECUTION TIME.
/save,myprogf=hellowf (Store MYPROGF as permanent file HELLOWF)
/catlist (Look at my permanent files)
CATALOG OF GUEST15 FM/CYBER 94/03/06. 16.08.27.
INDIRECT ACCESS FILES
1 INDIRECT ACCESS FILE ON DISK. TOTAL PRUS = 1.
/dayfile (View the system log of my session)
16.06.19. EOI ENCOUNTERED.
16.06.19. EOI. 0 FILES; 1 RECORD; 16 WORDS.
16.07.51. .008 CP SECONDS COMPILATION TIME
16.07.55. CM LWA+1 = 7636B, LOADER USED 25000B
16.07.55. 014000 MAXIMUM EXECUTION FL.
16.07.55. 0.006 CP SECONDS EXECUTION TIME.
USER DAYFILE PROCESSED.
/logout (Goodbye, CYBER, it was nice knowing you!)
UN=GUEST15 LOG OFF 16.09.20.
JSN=AAEU SRU-S= 3.094
IAF CONNECT TIME 00.07.51.
Connection closed by foreign host.
The CYBER also has a very user-friendly mode for writing and running programs in BASIC,
using line numbers for editing in the traditional way.
(Commands such as SAVE and CATLIST still work.)
Here's a transcript of a short BASIC session.
Here my typing is in lighter type, and the system's responses are in boldface.
OLD, NEW, OR LIB FILE:new
10 print "This is a BASIC program"
20 print "2 + 2 = ",2+2
10 PRINT "THIS IS A BASIC PROGRAM"
20 PRINT "2 + 2 = ",2+2
THIS IS A BASIC PROGRAM
2 + 2 = 4
UN=GUEST15 LOG OFF 17.04.02.
JSN=AAEY SRU-S= 1.056
IAF CONNECT TIME 00.00.53.
Connection closed by foreign host.
The performance of the BASIC compiler should not be underestimated.
It uses full 60-bit floating-point arithmetic just like FORTRAN.
And it includes the Dartmouth MAT commands for matrix arithmetic.
The predecessor of this BASIC environment
was, in fact, the first programming environment that I ever used, back on
one chilly day in February 1973. Enjoy!
These sessions took place on March 6, 2004. The date on the CYBER set 10 years into
the past because of Y2K noncompliance. The time of day on the CYBER is
German time (GMT+1), 6 hours ahead of Eastern Standard Time.